Clare (1193/4 - 1253)
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Synopsis

CLARE, St and the Clarisses. Clara Sciffi, b. at Assissi, l194, d. there Aug. 11, 1253, belonged to a distinguished family, but left her home in 1212 to follow St. Francis; practised, under his guidance, the severest asceticism; founded the order of the Nuns of St. Clare, or the Clarisses; and was canonized by Alexander IV. shortly after her death. The order received its rule from St. Francis in 1224, enjoining absolute poverty, temporary silence, fasting, etc. This rule was mitigated in 1246 by Innocent IV., and again in 1264 by Urban IV., after whom those who adopted only the mildest form of the rule were called Urbanists. In the fifteenth century, however, the development took the very opposite direction. Colette of Corbie (d. 1447) founded the Congregation of St. Colette, whose members bound themselves to a strict observance of the original rule. In 1631 Francisca of Jesus Maria, belonging to the house of Farnese, founded the Congregation of the Strictest Observance; and in 1676 Peter of Alcantara founded the Congregation of the ilermitesses of Alcautara, both of which went still farther in austere asceticism.

Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. p.489.

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Primary Sources

Book or monograph R.J. Armstrong, OFM Cap., translator. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New York, Paulist Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0809130122. pp.345. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph Francis & Clare: The Complete WorksFrancis & Clare, The Complete Works, Translator R..J. Armstrong, OFM. Cap. & I. Brady, OFM. Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1982. Pbk. ISBN: 0809124467. pp.256. {Amazon.com}
Book or monograph St Clare of AssisiChristopher Stace, translator. St Clare of Assisi. Triangle, 2001. Pbk. ISBN: 0281052948. pp.160. {Amazon.com}

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Secondary Sources

Book or monograph Marco Bartoli, Clare of Assisi. London: Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd, 1993. Pbk. ISBN: 0232520267. pp.256.
Book or monograph C.N.L. Brooke, "St. Clare," Derek Baker, ed. Medieval Women, Dedicated and Presented to Rosalind M.T. Hill on the Occasion of Her Seventieth Birthday. Studies in Church History, Subsidia, 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. ISBN: 0631192603. pp.275-87. {Amazon.com}
Article Pierre Brunette, "Francis and Clare of Assisi: A Journey into Symbols of Growth," Studia Mystica 12.1 (1989): 6-20.
Article F. Edward Coughlin, "Clare of Assisi: A Paradigm for Building Partnership," New Theology Review 9.1 (1996): 58-70.
Book or monograph E. Gilliat-Smith, Saint Clare of Assisi: Her Life and Legislation. 1914.
Article Timothy J. Johnson, "Visual Imagery and Contemplation in Clare of Assisi's Letters to Agnes of Prague," Mystics Quarterly 19.4 (1993): 161-172.
Article Mary Walsh Meany, "Choose to Live According to the Perfection of the Holy Gospel: Saint Francis and Saint Clare as Spiritual Guides," Chicago Studies 38.1 (1999): 50-59.

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