Anselm (c.1033-1109)


ANSELM OF CANTERBURY, b. in 1033, at Aosta in Piedmont; d. at Canterbury, April 21, 1109; the father of mediaeval scholasticism, and one of the most eminent English prelates. He belonged to a rich family of old Lombard nobility, but felt himself so strongly drawn towards a life of study and contemplation, that, in spite of his father’s protest, he entered the Monastery of Bec, in Normandy, where he studied under the tuition of his celebrated countryman, Lanfranc, and finally took holy orders. In 1063 he was chosen prior, and in 1078, abbot of Bec; and under his guidance and by his teaching the fame of the school of the place steadily increased. In 1093 he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury; and, though he was a very mild and meek man, he had adopted the Gregorian views of the relation between Church and State, and followed them out in practice with unswerving consistency. Strife soon broke out between him and the king, William Rufus, who exiled him in 1097. Under William’s successor, Henry I., he returned; but the strife soon broke out again. Once more he went into exile; and a reconciliation was not brought about until 1106, when the king renounced the right of investiture with ring and staff, and the archbishop consented to take the oath of allegiance for his feudal possessions.

In the history of theology Anselm stands as the father of orthodox scholasticism. He was called the second Augustine. Of the two theological tendencies at that time occupying the field, - the one more free and rational, represented by Berengarius; anti the other confining itself more closely to the tradition of the church, and represented by Lanfranc, - he chose the latter; and he defines the object of scholastical theology to be the logical development and dialectical demonstration of the doctrines of the church such as they were handed down through the Fathers. The dogmas of the church are to him identical with revelation itself; and their truth surpasses the conceptions of reason so far, that it seems to him to be mere vanity to doubt a dogma on account of its unintelligibility. Credo ut intelligam, non quaero intelligere ut credam, is the principle on which he proceeds; and after him it has become the principle of all orthodox theology. As a metaphysician he was a Realist; and one of his earliest works, De Fide Trinitatis, was an attack on the Nominalist Roscellin’s doctrine of the Holy Trinity. His two most celebrated works are Proslogium, written before 1078, and setting forth the ontological proof of the existence of God, and Cur Deus Homo, finished at Capua in 1098, and developing those views of atonement and satisfaction which still are held by orthodox divines. his Meditationes and Orationes are of an edifying and contemplative character rather than dialectical, but are often very impressive.

Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 1. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. p.90.

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Primary Sources

On-line Resource Anselm's Basic Works (Christian Classics Ethereal Library)
Book or monograph St Anselm: Basic WritingsSt Anselm, Basic Writings, 2nd edn. Open Court Publishing Company, 1962. Pbk. ISBN: 0875481094. pp.328. {}
Book or monograph Anselm: The Major WorksAnselm of Canterbury, The Major Works. Brian Davies & G.R. Evans, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Pbk. ISBN: 0192825259. pp.542. {}
Book or monograph Maxwell John Charlesworth, St Anselm's Proslogion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965. + 196.
Book or monograph Anselm of Canterbury, St. Anselm's Proslogion With a Reply on Behalf of the Fool. University of Notre Dame Press. Hbk. ISBN: 0268016968. {}
Book or monograph Fairweather: A Scholastic MiscellanyE.R. Fairweather, A Scholastic Miscellany: Anselm to Ockham. Westminster John Knox Press, 1982. Pbk. ISBN: 0664244181. pp.457. {CBD} {}
Book or monograph Desmond P. Henry, The De Grammatico of St Anselm. University of Notre Dame Publications in Medieval Studies, 18. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1964.
Book or monograph Eadmer, Life of St. Anselm. R. W. Southern, translator. Oxford University Press Reprints distributed by Sandpiper Books, 1972. Hbk. ISBN: 0198222254. pp.386. {}

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Secondary Sources

Article Albert Anderson, "Anselm and the Logic of Religious Belief," Harvard Theological Review 61.2 (1968): 149-173.
Book or monograph Anselm Studies, Vol I: An Occasional Journal. Fifth International St Anselm Conference. Kraus International Publications, 1983. Hbk. ISBN: 0527036625. pp.273. {}
Article Christopher Armstrong, St. Anselm and His Critics: Further Reflections on the Cur Deus Homo," Downside Review 86(285) (1968): 354-376.
Article F.B.A. Asiedu, "Anselm and the Unbelievers: Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Cur Deus Homo," Theological Studies 62.3 (2001): 530-548.
Article F.B.A. Asiedu, "Anselm, The Ethics of Solidarity, and the Ideology of Crusade," American Benedictine Review 53.1 (2002): 42-59.
Article Frank Burch Brown, "The Beauty of Hell: Anselm on God's Eternal Design," Journal of Religion 73.3 (1993): 329-356.
On-line Resource E. Caird [1835-1908], "Anselm's Argument for the Being of God - Its History and What it Proves," Journal of Theological Studies 1 No 1 (Oct. 1899): 23-39.View in PDF format [This material is in the Public Domain]
Book or monograph Richard James Campbell, From Belief to Understanding: A Study of Anselm's of Anselm's Prologion Argument on the Existence of God. Canberra: Faculty of Arts, Australian National University, 1976. Pbk. ISBN: 0708101429. pp.229. {}
Article Richard Campbell, "Anselm's Theological Method," Scottish Journal of Theology 32 (1979): 541-
Article Richard Campbell, "Anselm's Background in Metaphysics," Scottish Journal of Theology 33 (1980): 317-
Article M.T. Clanchy, "Abelard's Mockery of St. Anselm," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 41.1 (1990): 1-23.
Book or monograph Joseph Clayton, Saint Anselm. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1933. pp.xxvi + 165.
Article Jos Decorte, "Saint Anselm of Canterbury on Ultimate Reality and Meaning," Ultimate Reality and Meaning 12.3 (1989): 177-191.
Article Daniel Deme, "The 'Origin' of Evil according to Anselm of Canterbury," Heythrop Journal 43.2 (2002): 170-184.
Book or monograph Casper: Anselm of Canterbury and His Theological InheritanceGiles Gasper, Anselm of Canterbury and His Theological Inheritance. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004. Hbk. ISBN: 0754639118. pp.240. {}
Book or monograph Gillian R. Evans, Anselm and Talking About God. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. Hbk. ISBN: 0198266472. pp.222. {}
Article Gillian R. Evans, "St. Anselm and Knowing God," Journal of Theological Studies 28.2 (1977): 430-444.
Article Gillian R. Evans, "St. Anselm and St. Bruno of Segni: The Common Ground," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 29.2 (1978): 129 - 144.
Article Gillian R. Evans, "A Theology of Change in the Writings of St. Anselm and His Contemporaries," Recherches De Theologie Ancienne Et Medievale 47 (1980): 53-76.
Article Gillian E. Evans, "Abbreviating Anselm," Recherches De Theologie Ancienne Et Medievale 48 (1981): 78-109.
Book or monograph Gillian R. Evans, ed. Concordance to the Works of St. Anselm. Kraus International Publications, 1983. Hbk. ISBN: 0527036617. {}
Article G.R. Evans, "Making the Theory Fit the Practice: Augustine and Anselm on Prayer," Epworth Review 18.3 (1991): 78-81.
Article G.R. Evans, "Making the Theory Fit the Practice: Augustine and Anselm on Prayer, Part II," Epworth Review 19.1 (1992): 57-68.
Article John D. Hannah, "Anselm on the Doctrine of Atonement," Bibliotheca Sacra 135: 540 (1978): 333-344.
Article Charles Hartshorne, "What Did Anselm Discover?" Union Seminary Quarterly Review 17.3 (1962): 213-222.
Book or monograph Desmond P. Henry, The Logic of St. Anselm. Oxford: 1967. hbk. ISBN: 0198266138. {}
Book or monograph Desmond P. Henry, Commentary on De Grammatico: The Historical-Logical Dimensions of a Dialogue of St Anselm's. Synthese Historical Library, 8. Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1974. Hbk. ISBN: 9027703825. pp.360. {}
Book or monograph David S. Hogg, Anselm of Canterbury: The Beauty of Theology. The Great Theologians Series. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005. Pbk. ISBN: 0754632326. pp.256. {}
Book or monograph Jasper Hopkins, A Companion to the Study of St. Anselm. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1972. Hbk. ISBN: 0816606579. pp.304. {}
Book or monograph Jasper Hopkins & Herbert Richardson, Complete Treatises, Vol. 4: Hermeneutical and Textual Problems in the Complete Treatises of St Anselm. Edwin Mellen Press, 1976. Hbk. ISBN: 0889465517. pp.210. {}
On-line Resource Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) (The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Article G. Stanley Kang, "Fides Quarens Intellectum in Anselm's Thought, Scottish Journal of Theology 26 (1973): 40-
On-line Resource Saint Anselm's Proof: A Problem of Reference, Intentional Identity and Mutual Understanding (Gyula Klima)
Article Brian Leftow, "Anselm on the Necessity of the Incarnation," Religious Studies 31.2 (1995): 167-185.
Article A.E. McGrath, "Rectitude the Moral Foundation of Anselm of Canterbiry's Soteriology," Downside Review 336 (1981): 204-213.
Book or monograph John McIntyre, St. Anselm and His Critics: A Re-Interpretation of the Cur Deus Homo. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1954. pp.214.
Article E.L. Mascall, "Faith and Reason: Anselm and Aquinas," Journal of Theological Studies 14 (1963): 67-90.
Article Perry C. Mason, "The Devil and St. Anselm," International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9.1 (1978): 1-15.
Article John Morreall, "The Aseity of God in St. Anselm," Studia Theologica 36.1 (1982): 37-46.
Article Aidan Nichols, "Anselm Of Canterbury And The Language Of Perfection," Downside Review 103(352) (1985): 204-217.
Article Joan M. Nuth, "Two Medieval Soteriologies: Anselm of Canterbury and Julian of Norwich," Theological Studies 53.4 (1992): 611-645.
Article M.J.A. O'Connor, "New Aspects of Omnipotence and Necessity in Anselm," Religious Studies 4.1 (1968): 133-146.
Article John O'Neill, "The Same Thing Therefore Ought to Be and Ought Not to Be : Anselm on Conflicting Oughts," The Heythrop Journal 35.3 (1994): 312-314.
Article Ted Peters, "The Atonment in Anselm in Anselm and Luther: Second Thoughts About Gustaf Aulen's Christus Victor," Lutheran Quarterly 24.3 (1972): 301-314.
Book or monograph Robson: St Francis of AssisiMichael Robson, St Francis of Assisi: The Legend and the Life. Continuum International Publishing Group - Geoffrey Chapman, 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 0225668769. pp.305. {}
Book or monograph Katherin A. Rogers & John R. Fortin (Editor), Saint Anselm - His Origins and Influence. Edwin Mellen Press, 2001. Hbk. ISBN: 0773473653. pp.252. {}
Article Michael Root, "Necessity and Unfittingness in Anselm's Cur Deus Homo," Scottish Journal of Theology 40 (1987): 211-
Article Peter M. Schmiechen, "Anselm and the Faithfulness of God," Scottish Journal of Theology 26.2 (1973): 151-168.
Book or monograph Dorothy Smith, Saint Francis of Assisi. New York: Paulist Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0809165783. pp.71. {}
Article Frederick Sontag, "Anselm and the Concept of God," Scottish Journal of Theology 35.3 (1982): 213-218.
Book or monograph Southern: Saint Anselm and His BiographerRichard W. Southern, Saint Anselm and His Biographer, new edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Pbk. ISBN: 0521438187. pp.523. {}
Book or monograph Southern: Saint AnselmRichard W. Southern, Saint Anselm: A Portrait in a Landscape. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Pbk. ISBN: 0521438187. pp.513. {}
Book or monograph Memorials of St AnselmRichard W. Southern & F.S. Schmitt, eds. Memorials of St Anselm, new edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Pbk. ISBN: 0197261027. pp.380. {}
Book or monograph Sally N. Vaughn, Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan. Los Angeles & London: University of California Press, 1987. Hbk. ISBN: 0520056744. pp.413. {}
Article C.R. Walker, "St. Anselm - A Revelation," Scottish Journal of Theology 5 (1952): 362-
Article Gordon Watson, "Karl Barth and St. Anselm's Theological Programme," Scottish Journal of Theology 30 (1977): 31-
Article Gordon Watson, "A Study in St. Anselm's Soteriology and Karl Barth Theological Method," Scottish Journal of Theology 42 (1989): 493-
Article Stephen D. Wigley, "Karl Barth on St. Anselm: The Influence of Anselm's 'Theological Scheme' on T.F. Torrance and Eberhard Jüngel," Scottish Journal of Theology 46 (1993): 79-
On-line Resource Saint Anselm (Thomas Williams)
Book or monograph Josef Zumr & Vilem Herold, eds. The European Dimension of St Anselm's Thinking. Edwin Mellen Press, 1995. Pbk. ISBN: 077349006X. pp.186. {}

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Peter Abelard | Aelfric | Alcuin |Anselm | Augustine of Canterbury | Thomas Becket | Bede | Benedict | Bernard of Clairvaux | Boniface | Thomas Bradwardine | Bruno | Catherine of Siena | Charlemagne | Charles Martel | Clare | Clovis | Columba | Dominic | Duns Scotus | Dunstan | Meister Eckhart | Desiderius Erasmus | Francis of Assisi | Gottschalk | Gregory I | Gregory of Rimini | Gregory of Tours | Hildegard of Bingen | Hugo of St Victor | Ignatius Loyola | Innocent III | Isidore | Joachim of Fiore | John Huss | John of Wesel | Jerome of Prague | Julian of Norwich | Marjory Kempe | Ramon Llull | Nicholas of Cusa | Nicholas of Lyre | Patrick | Pepin (Pippin III) | Peter Damian | Peter Lombard | Peter the Venerable | Photius | Richard Rolle | Scholastica | Thomas Aquinas | Wilfred | William of Ockham | William of St-Theirry | John Wycliffe

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