Thomas Aquinas (c.1225-74)


THOMAS OF AQUINO (or Aquinas), the profoundest and keenest defender of the doctrines of the Roman-Catholic Church; was b. in 1225 or 1227, in the castle of Rocca Sicca, near Aquino, a city not far from Naples; d. March 6, 1274, in the Cistercian convent of Fossa Nuova, near Terracina. I. Life. - Thomas, who was of noble birth, was placed in his fifth year under the monks of Monte Casino. In his tenth year he went to Naples; and in his sixteenth year, in spite of the opposition of his family, which was finally overcome by the intervention of Pope Innocent IV., he entered the Dominican order. In 1245 he was sent to Cologne to enjoy the instruction of Albertus Magnus, who directed his attention to Aristotle’s philosophy and the writings of Dionysius the Areopagite. In 1248 he was made baccalaureate of theology in Paris, and the same year began to lecture on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, at Cologne. Returning to Paris, he taught there a large throng of students. Urban IV. repeatedly offered him high ecclesiastical preferment, which he in his humility declined. Under the pontificate of Clement IV. and till 1268, he taught in Rome, Bologna, and Paris. In 1272, in obedience to his order and the wish of King Charles, he made Naples the seat of his activity. The last years of his life were principally occupied with the completion of his great work, Summa theologicæ. He died on his way to the church council at Lyons. In 1323 he was canonized by John XXII. If any one is entitled to this dignity by his life and works, Aquinas was. His piety, though monkish, was unfeigned; and he prepared himself for his writings, lectures, etc., by prayer. Louis IX. several times consulted him on matters of state. his industry, as his writings show, was intense. [Aquinas was declared a doctor of the church by Pius V. in 1567, and has a place with Augustine, Jerome, and Ambrose, among the most authoritative teachers of the church. Leo XIII., in an encyclical dated Aug. 4, 1879, recommended his works to the Catholic seminaries and theological faculties throughout the world, as a proper foundation of their religious and philosophical teaching, and particularly emphasized his political doctrines as conservative for society. The special title of this great theologian is the "Angelic Doctor," Doctor Angelicus.]

II. Theology. - In certain respects, Thomas of Aquino marks the culminating point of scholasticism. He sought to establish for the science of theology a position of superior dignity and importance over the science of philosophy, and, on the other hand, the harmony of the two sciences, by distinguishing in revelation the religious truths which can be excogitated by the use of reason from those which are only known by revelation. The doctrinal creed of the church, Thomas treats as absolute truth; but it is a remarkable fact, that he uses the arguments of the church-teachers only as of probable authority (Summa theol., i. qu. 1, art. 8). He refers more frequently to biblical texts than the other scholastics; but this practice does not purify his theology, but helps to confirm the church-doctrines. his exegetical principles were good; and he expressly commended the literal interpretation of the Scriptures, omnes sensus scripturæ fundantur super unum sensum literalem ex quo solo potest trahi argumentum, etc. (Summa, 1. qu. 1, art. 10), but could not free himself from ecclesiastical authority. Thomas did not grant the ontological argument of Anselm for the existence of God. He gives several forms of the cosmological and teleological arguments, but says, that, while reason can prove that God exists, it cannot discover what his nature is. His fundamental conception of God is that of spiritual and active being. God is intelligence and will (intellectus et voluntas), the first cause. Thinking and willing are inseparable from his being. He is consequently forever returning to the idea of the absolute identity and simplicity of God. He employs all his speculative talent to explain the doctrine of the Trinity; and yet he declares that it is beyond the sphere of reason to discover the distinction of persons in the Godhead, and affirms that he who tries to prove the doctrine of the Trinity by the unaided reason derogates from faith: qui probare nilitur Trinitatem personarum naturali ratione, fidei derogat (Summa, i. qu. 32, art. 1). Although Thomas did not, like his teacher Albertus Magnus, regard the world as an emanation from God, he refers its origin to God's active will, which is nothing more than his active intelligence, which, in turn, is only the essence of God working as the first cause. He is again and again forced to regard the world as a necessary product of the Divine Being, and inclines to the thesis of its eternal existence; so that he contents himself with saying, "It is credible that the world had a beginning, but neither demonstrable nor knowable: mundum incepisse credibile est, sed non demonstrabile et scibile (Summa, i. qu. 46, art. 2). The doctrines of election and reprobation he considers in connection with the doctrine of providence. Every thing occurs under the Divine Providence, and serves a single and final end. Both reprobation and election are matters of divine decree; and the exact number of the reprobate, as well as of the elect, is determined in advance. Reprobation, however, consists not in a positive action on God’s part, but in a letting-alone. God is not the cause of sin. He simply withholds his grace, and man falls by his own will. In opposition to the Arabic philosophers, Thomas insists upon the efficiency of second causes (Summa, i. qu. 105, art. 5), through which God works. He lays emphasis on the ability of the will to choose between two tendencies in the interest of the doctrines of guilt and merit.

Passing over to the creatures of God, Thomas dwells at length upon the subject of the angels, which he discusses with minute care and speculative skill. He teaches, with Augustine, that the original righteousness of Adam was a superadded gift. He spent special pains upon the elaboration of the doctrine of Christ’s person and work. He affirms the meeting in Christ of the two absolutely opposite principles of human ignorance and imperfection, and divine omniscience and perfection. He departs in some details from the Anselmic doetrine of Christ’s work, as when he denies the absolute necessity of the incarnation, and affirms that God might have redeemed man in some other way than by his Son. A human judge cannot release from punishment without expiation of guilt; but God, as the Supreme Being, can forgive without expiation, if he so chooses (Summa, iii. qu. 46, arts. 1, 2). The satisfaction of Christ removes all orignal guilt; and, by the application of his merit, the sinner secures freedom from and forgiveness of sin. Man’s nature is corrupt, and grace alone enables him to reach eternal life. Thomas passes directly from the consideration of the work of Christ to the sacraments. The number of the sacraments had already been fixed at seven, but his treatment had a shaping influence upon the discussion of the subject in after-time. He proved the necessity of seven sacraments, and the immanence in them of a supernatural element of grace. His treatment of the Eucharist, penance, and ordination, is characteristic. He held to the change of the elements to the body and blood of Christ, justified the withholding of the cup from the laity with casuistical arguments, and spoke of the sacrifice of the mass, now as a "symbolical picture of the passion" (image representativa passionis), now as a real sacrifice. It is noticeable, that, in his doctrine of the mass, he does not emphasize, as do his successors, the idea of sacrifice to the detriment of the sacramental idea. The subject of indulgences, Thomas handled at length; teaching that the efficacy of an indulgence does not depend upon the faith of the recipient, but upon the will and authority of the church, and extends to the dead as well as to the living (Summa, iii. qu. 71, art. 10). The discussion of eschatology follows the discussion of the sacraments. Thomas teaches the doctrines of purgatory and the intercession of saints, he treats the doctrines of the resurrection and future. blessedness at length, and teaches that the body of the resurrection will in form be identical with the present body, even to the hair and the nails.

Thomas was not less great as a teacher of ethics than as a theologian. Neander has said, that, next to that of Aristotle, his is the most important name in the history of ethics (Wissensch. Abhandlungen, ed. Jacobi, p. 46). But both as a moralist and a theologian he was a true son of the church. His system is, as Baur says, only an echo of the doctrinal teaching of the church. In the spirit of the day he discussed many idle and useless questions with casuistical minuteness and far.fetched argumentation. But he was in this respect more moderate than his coritemporaries. On the other hand, he discussed many important subjects with a depth and clearness of insight which make his views permanently interesting and valuable.

After the death of Aquinas, a conflict went on over his theology; Duns Scotus being the leader of the other school. The Dominicans were ranged on the side of Aquinas, whose followers were called Thomists; and the Franciscans on the side of Duns Scotus, whose followers were known as Scotists. The difference between the teachers was not in the doctrines they taught, but in their treatment of these doctrines. With Scotus, theology was a practical science; with Aquinas, a speculative science. The controversy lasted down to the eighteenth century; and the Franciscan De Rada mentions in his work, Controversiæ inter Thomam et Scotum (Cologne, 1620), no less than eighty-six points of difference between the two schools. The most important points of controversy were the Cognoscibility of God, the distinction between the divine attributes, original sin, the merits of Christ, etc. On the subject of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, the two teachers held divergent views; Thomas denying it, Scotus asserting it. The Jesuits opposed Thomisin, as Bellarmin’s example proves; but it prevailed at the Spanish universities of Salainanca, Coimbra, and Alcala. The Roman-Catholic Church cannot forget the most profound and penetrating defender of its doctrines until it reiiounces them; and the Protestant Church will not fail to share in the admiration of Thomas Aquinas so long as it continues to admire literary greatness.

Landerer, "Thomas of Aquino," Philip Schaff, ed., A Religious Encyclopaedia or Dictionary of Biblical, Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, 3rd edn, Vol. 4. Toronto, New York & London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1894. pp.2353-2355.

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Book or monograph Vernon J. Bourke, Thomistic Bibliography 1920-1940. St Louis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1945. Pbk. ISBN: 0915144964. {}
Book or monograph Richard Ingardia, Thomas Aquinas International Bibliography 1977-1990. Bowling Green, OH: Philosophy Documentation Center, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 0912632925. pp.492. {}
Book or monograph Leonard A. Kennedy, CSB. A Catalogue of Thomists, 1270-1900. University of Notre Dame Press. Hbk. ISBN: 0268007632. pp.240. {}
Book or monograph Terry Miethe & V.J. Bourke, Thomistic Bibliography, 1940-1978. Westport, CN & London: Greenwood Press, 1980. Hbk. ISBN: 0313219915. pp.318. {}

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Primary Sources

Book or monograph The Aquinas Prayer BookRobert Anderson & Johannes Moser, eds. The Aquinas Prayer Book: The Prayers and Hymns of St. Thomas Aquinas. Sophia Institute Press, 2000. Pbk. ISBN: 1928832148. pp.128. {}
Book or monograph The Pocket AquinasVernon Bourke, ed. The Pocket Aquinas. Pocket Books, 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0671739913. pp.10. {}
Book or monograph Clark: An Aquinas ReaderMary T. Clark, ed., An Aquinas Reader. Fordham University Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0823212068. pp.597. {}
Book or monograph Christopher Martin, ed. The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas: Introductory Readings. London: Routledge, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0415002966. pp.208. {}
Book or monograph St Thomas Aquinas on Politics and EthicsPaul Sigmund, St Thomas Aquinas on Politics and Ethics. W.W. Norton, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0393952436. pp.278. {}
On-line Resource Catena Aurea (Christian Classics Ethereal Library)
On-line Resource Of God and His Creatures (Jacques Maritain Center)
Book or monograph Robert Pasnau, Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0521001897. pp.512. {}
Book or monograph Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Vol. 1Anton Charles Pegis, Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas, new edn., Vol. 1. Hackett Publishing Co., Inc., 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0872203808. pp.1151. {}
Book or monograph Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Vol. 2.Anton Charles Pegis, Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas, new edn., Vol. 2. Hackett Publishing Co., Inc., 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0872203824. pp.1211. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on Aristotle's De Anima. Dumb Ox Books, 1995. Hbk. ISBN: 1883357101. pp.298. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on the Gospel of St.John. St. Bede's Publications,U.S., 2000. Pbk. ISBN: 1879007401. pp.570. {}
Book or monograph Aquinas: Exposition of the "On the Hebdomads" of BoethiusThomas Aquinas, Exposition of the "On the Hebdomads" of Boethius, Janice L. Schultz & Edward A. Synan, introduction & translators. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2001. Pbk. ISBN: 0813209951. pp.132. {}
Book or monograph Aquinas: The Literal Exposition on JobThomas Aquinas, The Literal Exposition on Job, Anthony Damico, translator. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Pbk. ISBN: 1555402925. pp.504. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: On Law, Morality, and PoliticsThomas Aquinas, On Law, Morality, and Politics. Hackett Publishing Co., Inc., 1995. Pbk. ISBN: 0872200310. pp.316. {}
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Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Selected WritingsThomas Aquinas, Selected Writings, Ralph McInerny, ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1998. ISBN: 0140436324. pp.880. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Selected Philosophical WritingsThomas Aquinas, Selected Philosophical Writings, new edn. Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks, 1998. Pbk. ISBN: 0192835858. pp.488. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Summa Contra Gentiles Book 1Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles Book 1: God, new edn. University of Notre Dame Press, 1975. Pbk. ISBN: 026801678X. pp.317. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Summa Contra Gentiles Book 2Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles Book 2: Providence, new edn. University of Notre Dame Press, 1991. Pbk. ISBN: 0268016887. pp.282. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Summa Contra Gentiles Book 3Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles Book 3, Part 1: Providence:, new edn. University of Notre Dame Press. Pbk. ISBN: 0268016860. pp.278. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Summa Contra Gentiles Book 4Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles Book 4: Salvation, new edn. University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. Pbk. ISBN: 0268016844. pp.360. {}
On-line Resource The Summa Theologica (Christian Classics Ethereal Library)
On-line Resource The Summa Theologica (New Advent)
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologiae: A Concise TranslationThomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae: A Concise Translation, Timothy McDermott, ed. Christian Classics, 1989. Hbk. ISBN: 0870612115. pp.652. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas: Treatise on HappinessThomas Aquinas, Treatise on Happiness. University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. Pbk. ISBN: 0268018499. pp.224. {}
Book or monograph Thomas Aquinas, The Treatise on Law, R.J. Henle, SJ, ed. University of Notre Dame Press, 1993. Hbk. ISBN: 0268018804. pp.368. {}
Book or monograph Simon Tugwell, Albert & Thomas: Selected Writings. Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Pauluist Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 080913022X. pp.650. {}

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Secondary Sources

Article Prudence Allen, "Two Medieval Views on Woman's Identity: Hildegard of Bingen and Thomas Aquinas," Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 16.1 (1987): 21-36.
Book or monograph Robert H. Ayers, Language, Logic, and Reason in the Church Fathers: A Study of Tertullian, Augustine, and Aquinas. Altertumswissenschaftliche Texte Und Studien Series 6. Hildersheim: Olms Edition, 1979. Pbk. ISBN: 3487066297. pp.146. {}
Book or monograph Barron: Thomas AquinasRobert Barron, Thomas Aquinas: Spiritual Master (Crossroad Spiritual Legacy). Crossroad Publishing Company, 1996. Pbk. ISBN: 0824525078. pp.178. {}
Article Klaus Baumann, "Freedom and the Unconscious in Thomas Aquinas," Melita Theologica 51.2 (2000): 99-116.
Article Christopher Beiting, "The Idea of Limbo in Thomas Aquinas," Thomist 62.2 (1998): 217-244.
Book or monograph Mark Blaug, Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). Edward Elgar, 1991. Hbk. ISBN: 1852784652. pp.320. {}
Book or monograph Vivian Boland, Ideas in God According to Saint Thomas Aquinas: Sources and Synthesis. Studies in the History of Christian Thought, No. 69. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Hbk. ISBN: 9004103929. pp.412. {}
On-line Resource Stephen J. Casselli, "The Threefold Division Of The Law In The Thought Of Aquinas," Westminster Theological Journal 61.2 (1999): 175-207.
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Book or monograph Mary T. Clark (Editor), An Aquinas Reader. Fordham University Press, 1988. Pbk. ISBN: 0823212068. pp. 597. {}
Book or monograph Copleston: AquinasF.C. Copleston, Aquinas. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1955. Pbk. ISBN: 0140136746. pp.272. {}
Article Richard W. Cross, "Aquinas on Psychology," Journal of Psychology & Christianity 17.4 (1998): 306-320.
Article Michael A. Dauphinais, "Loving the Lord Your God: The Imago Dei in Saint Thomas Aquinas," Thomist 63.2 (1999): 242-267.
Book or monograph Brian Davies, Thomas Aquinas: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2003. Pbk. ISBN: 0195153014. pp.384. {}
Article Martin J. De Nys, "Aquinas and Kierkegaard on the Relation between God and Creatures," American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 75.3 (2001): 389-407.
Article Lawrence Dewan, "The Individual as a Mode of Being According to Thomas Aquinas," Thomist 63.3 (1999): 403-424.
Article Gregory Doolan, "The Relation of Culture and Ignorance to Culpability in Thomas Aquinas," Thomist 63.1 (1999): 105-124.
Book or monograph L.J. Elders, The Metaphysics of Being of St Thomas Aquinas in a Historical Perspective. Studien Und Texte Zur Geistesgeschichte Des Mittelalters, Band 34. Leiden: Brill, 1992. Hbk. ISBN: 9004096450. pp.318. {}
Article Gilles Emery, "Essentialism or Personalism in the Treatise on God in Saint Thomas Aquinas," Thomist 64.4 (2000): 521-563.
Book or monograph Kenelm Foster, OP. The Life of Saint Thomas Aquinas: Biographical Documents. London / Baltimore: Longmans, Green and Co. / Helicon Press, 1959. pp. xii + 172.
Book or monograph Norman L. Geisler, Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1991. Pbk. ISBN: 0801038448. pp.195. {}
Book or monograph Gilson: The Christian Philosophy of St. ThomasÉtienne H. Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, new edn., L.K. Shook, translator. University of Notre Dame Press, 1994. Pbk. ISBN: 0268008019. pp.502. {}
Article Wayne J. Hankey, "Why Philosophy Abides for Aquinas," Heythrop Journal 42.3 (2001): 329-348.
Book or monograph Healy: Thomas AquinasNicholas M. Healy, Thomas Aquinas: Theologian of the Christian Life. The Great Theologians Series. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Pbk.ISBN: 0754614727. pp.152. {}
Article Charles R. Hess, "Aquinas' Organic Synthesis of Plato and Aristotle," Angelicum 58.3 (1981): 339-350.
Article Michael A. Hoonout, "Grounding Providence in the Theology of the Creator: The Exemplarity of Thomas Aquinas," Heythrop Journal 43.1 (2002): 1-19.
Article David A. Horner, "What It Takes to Be Great: Aristotle and Aquinas on Magnanimity," Faith and Philosophy 15.4 (1998): 415-444.
Book or monograph Introduction to the Summa Theologiae of Thomas AquinasJohn of St. Thomas, Introduction to the Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas, Ralph McInerny, translator. St Augustine's Press, 2001. Hbk. ISBN: 1890318701. pp.224. {}
Article John Jones, "Aquinas on Human Well-Being and the Necessities of Life," Thomist 66.1 (2002): 61-100.
Article Christopher Kaczor, "Thomas Aquinas on the Development of Doctrine," Theological Studies 62.2 (2001): 283-302.
Article John F.X. Kanasas, "Contra Spinoza: Aquinas on God's Free Will," American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76.3 (2002): 417-429.
Book or monograph Anthony Kenny, ed. Aquinas: A Collection of Critical Essays. New York, 1969 / London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976. ISBN: 026800580X. pp.395. {}
Book or monograph The Cambridge Companion to AquinasNorman Kretzmann & Eleanor Stump, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pbk. ISBN: 0521437695. pp.312. {}
Article George Kuykendall, "Thomas' Proof as Fides Quaerens Intellectum Towards a Trinitarian Analogia," Scottish Journal of Theology 31 (1978): 113-
Article Steven Long, "St. Thomas Aquinas through the Analytic Looking-Glass," Thomist 65.2 (2001): 259-300.
Book or monograph Ralph M. McInerny, A First Glance at St. Thomas Aquinas . University of Notre Dame Press, 1990. Pbk. ISBN: 0268009759. pp.198. {}
Book or monograph The Ever-Illuminating Wisdom of St. Thomas AquinasRalph McInerny, Marie George, John Haas & Russell Hittinger, The Ever-Illuminating Wisdom of St. Thomas Aquinas: Papers Presented at a Conference Sponsored by the Wethersfield Institute New York City, October 1. Ignatius Press, 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 0898707498. pp.150. {}
Article J.J. MacIntosh, "Aquinas on Necessity," American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72.3 (1998): 371-403.
Article Jim Manaris, "The Role of Reason in Aquinas and Calvin," ARC: Journal of Faculty Religious Studies of McGill University 27 (1999): 37-65.
Article Jürgen Moltmann, "Christian Hope: Messianic Or Transcendent? A Theological Discussion With Joachim Of Fiore And Thomas Aquinas," Horizons 12.2 (1985): 328-348.
Article Thomas V. Morris, "St. Thomas on the Identity and Unity of the Person of Christ: A Problem of Reference in Christological Discourse," Scottish Journal of Theology 35 (1982): 419-
Article Gayne Nerney, "Aristotle and Aquinas on Indignation: From Nemesis to Theodicy," Faith and Philosophy 8.1 (1991): 81-95.
Article Aidan Nichols, OP, "St. Thomas Aquinas on the Passion of Christ: A Reading of Summa Theologiae IIIa, q.46," Scottish Journal of Theology 43 (1990): 447-
Article John P. O'Callaghan, "Aquinas, Cognitive theory, and Analogy: A Propos of Robert Pasnau's Theories of Cognition in the Later Middle Ages," American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76.3 (2002): 451-482.
Book or monograph Robert A. O'Donnell, Hooked on Philosophy: Thomas Aquinas Made Easy. Alba House, 1995. Pbk. ISBN: 0818907401. pp.110. {}
Book or monograph O'Meara: Thomas Aquinas TheologianThomas F. O'Meara, Thomas Aquinas Theologian. University of Notre Dame Press, 1997. Pbk. ISBN: 0268042012. pp.368. {}
Article Thomas F. O'Meara, "Virtues in the Theology of Thomas Aquinas," Theological Studies 58.2 (1997): 254-285.
Article Thomas O'Meara, "Thomas Aquinas and Today's Theology," Theology Today 53.1 (1998): 46-58.
Book or monograph J. Obi Oguejiofor, The Philosophical Significance of Immortality in Thomas Aquinas. University Press of America, 2001. Hbk. ISBN: 076181910X. pp.248. {}
Article Simon Oliver, "Motion according to Aquinas and Newton," Modern Theology 17.2 (2001): 163-199.
Article Russell Pannier, "Aquinas on the Ultimate End of Human Experience," LOGOS: A Journal of Catholic Thought & Culture 3.4 (2000): 169-194.
Article Russell Pannier & Thomas Sullivan, "Getting a Grip on the Philosophies of Thomas Aquinas: A Defense of Systematic Reconstruction," Faith and Philosophy 18.1 (2001): 50-60.
Book or monograph Robert Pasnau, Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature : A Philosophical Study of Summa Theologiae Ia 75-89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Pbk. ISBN: 0521807328. pp.512. {}
Article John Peterson, "Judgment and Existence in Aquinas," American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72.4 (1998): 529-538.
Article Catherine Pickstock, "Thomas Aquinas and the Quest for the Eucharist," Modern Theology 15.2 (1999): 159-180.
Book or monograph Pieper: Guide to Thomas AquinasJosef Pieper, Guide to Thomas Aquinas. Ignatius Press, 1981. Pbk. ISBN: 0898703190. pp.181. {}
Book or monograph Pieper: The Silence of St. ThomasJosef Pieper, The Silence of St. Thomas: Three Essays, John Murray & Daniel O'Connor, translator. St. Augustine's Press, 1999. Pbk. ISBN: 1890318787. pp.128. {}
Book or monograph Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, St. Thomas Aquinas: 1274-1974. Commemorative Studies, 2 Vols. Toronto: Toronto : Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1974.
Article in Book Stephen J. Pope, "Aquinas on Almsgiving, Justice and Charity: An Interpretation and Reassessment," Heythrop Journal 32.2 (1991): 167-191.
Article in Book Michael Potts, "Aquinas, Hell, and the Resurrection of the Damned," Faith and Philosophy 15.3 (1998): 341-351.
Book or monograph Renick: Aquinas for Armchair TheologiansTimothy M. Renick, Aquinas for Armchair Theologians. Westminster John Knox Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 0664223044. pp.176. {}
Article in Book Robert L. Reymond, "Dr. John H. Gerstner on Thomas Aquinas as a Protestant," Westminster Theological Journal 59.1 (1997): 113-121.
Article in Book P.L. Reynolds, "Properties, Causality and Epistemological Optimism in Thomas Aquinas," Recherches de Theologie et Philosophie Medievales 68.2 (2001): 270-309.
Article in Book Eugene F. Rogers, "How the Virtues of an Interpreter Presuppose and Perfect Hermeneutics: The Case of Thomas Aquinas," Journal of Religion 76.1 (1996): 64-81.
Article in Book Nicholas Sagovsky, "Thomas Aquinas, Ratio Dei, and the University," Theology 101 (803) (1998): 353-358.
Article in Book Brian J. Shanley, "Eternity and Duration in Aquinas," Thomist 61.4 (1997): 525-548.
Article in Book Brian J. Shanley, "Divine Causation and Human Freedom in Aquinas," American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72.1 (1998): 99-122.
Article in Book Brian Shanley, "Aquinas on Pagan Virtue," Thomist 63.4 (1999): 553-578.
Book or monograph Smith: Aquinas's SourcesTimothy L. Smith, ed. Aquinas's Sources: The Notre Dame Symposium. St. Augustine's Press, 2002. Pbk. ISBN: 1587310279. pp.480. {}
Book or monograph Fernard van Steenbergen, Thomas Aquinas and Radical Aristotliansm. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1980. Pbk. ISBN: 0813205522. {}
Book or monograph Stump: AquinasEleonore Stump, Aquinas. Arguments of the Philosophers Series. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 2003. Hbk. ISBN: 0415029600. pp.560. {}
Article in Book Daniel A. Tappeiner, "Sacramental Causality in Aquinas and Rahner: Some Critical Thoughts," Scottish Journal of Theology 28 (1975): 243-57.
Article in Book Michael Torre, "Aquinas and the Credibility of God," LOGOS: A Journal of Catholic Thought & Culture 3.2 (2000): 107-117.
Book or monograph Arwin Vos, Aquinas, Calvin and Contemporary Protestant Thought. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985. Pbk. ISBN: 0802800602. pp.224. {}
Book or monograph Aquinas on DoctrineThomas G. Weinandy, ed., Aquinas on Doctrine. Edinburgh: Continuum International Publishing Group - T & T Clark Ltd., 2004. Pbk. ISBN: 0567084116. pp.296. {}
Book or monograph J.A. Weisheipl. OP. Friar Thomas D'Aquino, new edn. Catholic University of America Press, 1992. Pbk. ISBN: 0813205905. pp.487. {}
Book or monograph Wippel: The Metaphysical Thought of Thomas AquinasJohn F. Wippel, The Metaphysical Thought of Thomas Aquinas. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2000. Pbk. ISBN: 0813209838. pp.704. {}

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